- Age:By age 40, a woman’s chance of pregnancy has decreased from 90 percent to 67 percent. By age 45, the chance of becoming pregnant declines to 15 percent.
- Emotional factors: Depression and stress may have a direct effect on the hormones that regulate reproduction and affect sperm production or ovulation.
- Occupational and environmental risks: Studies suggest that prolonged exposure to high mental stress, high temperatures, chemicals, radiation, or heavy electromagnetic or microwave emissions may reduce fertility in both men and women.
- Unprotected sex: Having multiple sex partners and not using condoms may increase the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that can cause infertility in both men and women.
- Smoking: Smoking may increase the risk of infertility in women and may reduce sperm production in men.
- Alcohol use: Even moderate alcohol intake – as few as five drinks a week – can impair conception.
- Being overweightBody fat levels that are 10 percent to 15 percent above normal can overload the body with estrogen, throwing off the reproductive cycle.
- Being underweight: : Body fat levels 10 percent to 15 percent below normal can completely shut down the reproductive process. Women at risk include those with eating disorders and women on a very low-calorie or restrictive diet. Strict vegetarians also may experience infertility problems due to a lack of important nutrients.
Infertility in Women
Infertility in Men
Diagnosis and Treatment